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Features: Superb camera All day battery. Features: Flagship-grade performance and styling Screen among the best around Microlens photography fun and unique. At a glance, little has changed, but camera and battery improvements alone make the iPhone 13 Pro Max a significant upgrade for fans of the biggest iPhone.

Features: First-rate cameras Longer battery life Superb large display Unparalleled app ecosystem. Features: Well-priced Years of updates Striking design No telephoto lens. More multi-division Sony greatness, with a seriously impressive screen and pro-level camera abilities.

Photo novices might find it difficult to master, but no rival has such comprehensive out-of-the-box ability. Features: Astonishing display Ultra-speedy camera No-compromise feature list. Rating 4 of 5. Features: Improved cameras Better battery life Uncompromised power Nothing else like it. Features: Ultimate power Responsive inputs Striking screen, great sound Impressive battery life. A mid-tier marvel that puts pricier phones on notice with its rapid charging, smooth performance and capable camera — although its non-Pro sibling is arguably better value.

Features: Flagship performance Shockingly quick charging Gorgeous screen. The following year, the company announced that it would also exit the hardware market to focus more on software and its enterprise middleware, [85] and began to license the BlackBerry brand and its Android distribution to third-party OEMs such as TCL for future devices.

Prior to the completion of the sale to Microsoft, Nokia released a series of Android-derived smartphones for emerging markets known as Nokia X , which combined an Android-based platform with elements of Windows Phone and Nokia's feature phone platform Asha , using Microsoft and Nokia services rather than Google. By the mids, higher-end cell phones commonly had integrated digital cameras. In camera phones outsold stand-alone digital cameras, and in they outsold film and digital stand-alone cameras.

Five billion camera phones were sold in five years, and by more than half of the installed base of all mobile phones were camera phones. Sales of separate cameras peaked in Many early smartphones didn't have cameras at all, and earlier models that had them had low performance and insufficient image and video quality that could not compete with budget pocket cameras and fulfill user's needs.

The decline in sales of stand-alone cameras accelerated due to the increasing use of smartphones with rapidly improving camera technology for casual photography, easier image manipulation , and abilities to directly share photos through the use of apps and web-based services. In , digital camera sales were Contributing to the rise in popularity of smartphones being used over dedicated cameras for photography, smaller pocket cameras have difficulty producing bokeh in images, but nowadays, some smartphones have dual-lens cameras that reproduce the bokeh effect easily, and can even rearrange the level of bokeh after shooting.

This works by capturing multiple images with different focus settings, then combining the background of the main image with a macro focus shot. In the Nokia N95 was notable as a smartphone that had a 5. By 5. The main camera of the Nokia N86 uniquely features a three-level aperture lens. The Altek Leo, a megapixel smartphone with 3x optical zoom lens and p HD video camera was released in late In , the same year the Nintendo 3DS was released, HTC unveiled the Evo 3D , a 3D phone with a dual five-megapixel rear camera setup for spatial imaging, among the earliest mobile phones with more than one rear camera.

The Samsung Galaxy S3 introduced the ability to capture photos using voice commands. The high resolution enables four times of lossless digital zoom at p and six times at p resolution, using image sensor cropping. In the same year, Nokia introduced mobile optical image stabilization with the Lumia , enabling prolonged exposure times for low-light photography and smoothing out handheld video shake whose appearance would magnify over a larger display such as a monitor or television set , which would be detrimental to watching experience.

Starting in on the Xperia Z1 , Sony experimented with real-time augmented reality camera effects such as floating text, virtual plants, volcano, and a dinosaur walking in the scenery. In the same year, iOS 7 introduced the later widely implemented viewfinder intuition, where exposure value can be adjusted through vertical swiping, after focus and exposure has been set by tapping, and even while locked after holding down for a brief moment. It is equipped with manual parameter settings, including for focus and exposure.

The successor Samsung Galaxy K Zoom brought resolution and performance enhancements, but lacks the rotary knob and tripod mount to allow for a more smartphone-like shape with less protruding lens. While lacking optical zoom, its image sensor has a format of 1", as used in high-end compact cameras such as the Lumix DMC-LX and Sony CyberShot DSC-RX series, with multiple times the surface size of a typical mobile camera image sensor, as well as support for light sensitivities of up to ISO , well beyond the typical mobile camera light sensitivity range.

As of , no successor has been released. In and , HTC experimentally traded in pixel count for pixel surface size on their One M7 and M8 , both with only four megapixels, marketed as UltraPixel , citing improved brightness and less noise in low light, though the more recent One M8 lacks optical image stabilization. The One M8 additionally was one of the earliest smartphones to be equipped with a dual camera setup.

Its software allows generating visual spacial effects such as 3D panning, weather effects, and focus adjustment "UFocus" , simulating the postphotographic selective focussing capability of images produced by a light-field camera. Meanwhile, in , LG Mobile started experimenting with time-of-flight camera functionality, where a rear laser beam that measures distance accelerates autofocus. Phase-detection autofocus was increasingly adapted throughout the mids, allowing for quicker and more accurate focussing than contrast detection.

In Apple introduced the iPhone 7 Plus , one of the phones to popularize a dual camera setup. The Nokia 9 PureView was released in featuring a penta-lens camera system. With stronger getting chipsets to handle computing workload demands at higher pixel rates, mobile video resolution and framerate has caught up with dedicated consumer-grade cameras over years. In the same year, Apple brought video recording initially to the iPhone 3GS , at p, whereas the original iPhone and iPhone 3G lacked video recording entirely.

The early s brought a steep increase in mobile video resolution. However, the Samsung Galaxy S4 Zoom does support it. In , the Samsung Galaxy Note 3 introduced p 4K video recording at 30 frames per second , as well as p doubled to 60 frames per second for smoothness.

Other vendors adapted p recording in , including the optically stabilized LG G3. Apple first implemented it in late on the iPhone 6s and 6s Plus. Sufficient computing performance of chipsets and image sensor resolution and its reading speeds have enabled mobile p 8K filming in , introduced with the Samsung Galaxy S20 and Redmi K30 Pro , though some upper resolution levels were foregone skipped throughout development, including p 2.

Among mid-range smartphone series, the introduction of higher video resolutions was initially delayed by two to three years compared to flagship counterparts. The proliferation of video resolutions beond p has been postponed by several years. The mid-class Sony Xperia M5 supported p filming in , whereas Samsung's mid-class series such as the Galaxy J and A series were strictly limited to p in resolution and 30 frames per second at any resolution for six years until around , whether and how much for technical reasons is unclear.

A lower video resolution setting may be desirable to extend recording time by reducing space storage and power consumption. The camera software of some sophisticated devices such as the LG V10 is equipped with separate controls for resolution, frame rate , and bit rate , within a technically supported range of pixel rate. A distinction between different camera software is the method used to store high frame rate video footage, with more recent phones [a] retaining both the image sensor's original output frame rate and audio, while earlier phones do not record audio and stretch the video so it can be played back slowly at default speed.

While the stretched encoding method used on earlier phones enables slow motion playback on video player software that lacks manual playback speed control, typically found on older devices, if the aim were to achieve a slow motion effect, the real-time method used by more recent phones offers greater versatility for video editing, where slowed down portions of the footage can be freely selected by the user, and exported into a separate video.

A rudimentary video editing software for this purpose is usually precluded. The video can optionally be played back at normal real-time speed, acting as usual video. The output footage has been measured as a third of real-time speed. In early , the Galaxy S6 became the first Samsung mobile phone to retain the sensor framerate and audio, and in early , the Galaxy S7 became the first Samsung mobile phone with fps recording, also at p.

In early , the MT chipset by MediaTek promised p fps video recording. The project's status remains indefinite. Since early , starting with the Sony Xperia XZ , smartphones have been released with a slow motion mode that unsustainably records at framerates multiple times as high, by temporarily storing frames on the image sensor's internal burst memory. Such a recording endures few real-time seconds at most. In late , the iPhone 8 brought p at fps, as well as p at 60fps, followed by the Galaxy S9 in early In mid, the OnePlus 6 brought p at fps, sustainable for one minute.

In early , the OnePlus 9 Pro became the first phone with p at fps. Emphasis is being put on the front camera since the mids, where front cameras have reached resolutions as high as typical rear cameras, such as the LG G4 8 megapixels , Sony Xperia C5 Ultra 13 megapixels , and Sony Xperia XA Ultra 16 megapixels, optically stabilized.

The LG V10 brought a dual front camera system where the second has a wider angle for group photography. Samsung implemented a front-camera sweep panorama panorama selfie feature since the Galaxy Note 4 to extend the field of view. Apple adapted p front camera video with the late iPhone 7. In , smartphones started adapting p 4K video recording on the front camera, six years after rear camera p commenced with the Galaxy Note 3.

In the early s, larger smartphones with screen sizes of at least millimetres 5. Some companies began to release smartphones in incorporating flexible displays to create curved form factors, such as the Samsung Galaxy Round and LG G Flex. By , p displays began to appear on high-end smartphones. New trends for smartphone displays began to emerge in , with both LG and Samsung releasing flagship smartphones LG G6 and Galaxy S8 , utilizing displays with taller aspect ratios than the common ratio, and a high screen-to-body ratio, also known as a "bezel-less design".

These designs allow the display to have a larger diagonal measurement, but with a slimmer width than displays with an equivalent screen size. This design characteristic appeared almost simultaneously on the Sharp Aquos S2 and the Essential Phone , [] which featured small circular tabs for their cameras, followed just a month later by the iPhone X , which used a wider tab to contain a camera and facial scanning system known as Face ID.

Other variations of the practice later emerged, such as a " hole-punch " camera such as those of the Honor View 20, and Samsung's Galaxy A8s and Galaxy S10 —eschewing the tabbed "notch" for a circular or rounded-rectangular cut-out within the screen instead, [] while Oppo released the first "all-screen" phones with no notches at all, [] including one with a mechanical front camera that pops up from the top of the device Find X , [] and a prototype for a front-facing camera that can be embedded and hidden below the display, using a special partially-translucent screen structure that allows light to reach the image sensor below the panel.

Displays supporting refresh rates higher than 60 Hz such as 90 Hz or Hz also began to appear on smartphones in ; initially confined to "gaming" smartphones such as the Razer Phone and Asus ROG Phone , they later became more common on flagship phones such as the Pixel 4 and Samsung Galaxy S21 series Higher refresh rates allow for smoother motion and lower input latency, but often at the cost of battery life.

As such, the device may offer a means to disable high refresh rates, or be configured to automatically reduce the refresh rate when there is low on-screen motion. An early implementation of multiple simultaneous tasks on a smartphone display are the picture-in-picture video playback mode "pop-up play" and "live video list" with playing video thumbnails of the Samsung Galaxy S3 , the former of which was later delivered to the Samsung Galaxy Note through a software update.

The earliest implementation of desktop and laptop-like windowing was on the Samsung Galaxy Note 3. Smartphones utilizing flexible displays were theorized as possible once manufacturing costs and production processes were feasible. Also that month, Samsung presented a prototype phone featuring an "Infinity Flex Display" at its developers conference, with a smaller, outer display on its "cover", and a larger, tablet-sized display when opened.

Samsung stated that it also had to develop a new polymer material to coat the display as opposed to glass. In November , Motorola unveiled a variation of the concept with its re-imagining of the Razr , using a horizontally-folding display to create a clamshell form factor inspired by its previous feature phone range of the same name. The first smartphone with a fingerprint reader was the Motorola Atrix 4G in One of the barriers of fingerprint reading amongst consumers was security concerns, however Apple was able to address these concerns by encrypting this fingerprint data onto the A7 Processor located inside the phone as well as make sure this information could not be accessed by third-party applications and is not stored in iCloud or Apple servers [].

In , Fairphone launched its first "socially ethical" smartphone at the London Design Festival to address concerns regarding the sourcing of materials in the manufacturing [] followed by Shiftphone in In October , Motorola Mobility announced Project Ara , a concept for a modular smartphone platform that would allow users to customize and upgrade their phones with add-on modules that attached magnetically to a frame.

Microsoft, expanding upon the concept of Motorola's short-lived "Webtop", unveiled functionality for its Windows 10 operating system for phones that allows supported devices to be docked for use with a PC-styled desktop environment. Samsung and LG used to be the "last standing" manufacturers to offer flagship devices with user-replaceable batteries.

But in , Samsung succumbed to the minimalism trend set by Apple, introducing the Galaxy S6 without a user-replaceable battery. Major technologies that began to trend in included a focus on virtual reality and augmented reality experiences catered towards smartphones, the newly introduced USB-C connector, and improving LTE technologies.

In , adjustable screen resolution known from desktop operating systems was introduced to smartphones for power saving, whereas variable screen refresh rates were popularized in In , the first smartphones featuring fingerprint readers embedded within OLED displays were announced, followed in by an implementation using an ultrasonic sensor on the Samsung Galaxy S In , the majority of smartphones released have more than one camera, are waterproof with IP67 and IP68 ratings, and unlock using facial recognition or fingerprint scanners.

In , the first smartphones featuring high-speed 5G network capability were announced. Since , smartphones have decreasingly been shipped with rudimentary accessories like a power adapter and headphones that have historically been almost invariably within the scope of delivery. This trend was initiated with Apple's iPhone 12 , followed by Samsung and Xiaomi on the Galaxy S21 and Mi 11 respectively, months after having mocked the same through advertisements.

The reason cited is reducing environmental footprint, though reaching raised charging rates supported by newer models demands a new charger shipped through separate packaging with its own environmental footprint. Some are also equipped with an FM radio receiver, a hardware notification LED , and an infrared transmitter for use as remote control. Few have additional sensors such as thermometer for measuring ambient temperature, hygrometer for humidity, and a sensor for ultraviolet ray measurement.

Few exotic smartphones designed around specific purposes are equipped with uncommon hardware such as a projector Samsung Beam i and Samsung Galaxy Beam i , optical zoom lenses Samsung Galaxy S4 Zoom and Samsung Galaxy K Zoom , thermal camera , and even PMR walkie-talkie radio transceiver. Smartphones have central processing units CPUs , similar to those in computers, but optimised to operate in low power environments. The performance of mobile CPU depends not only on the clock rate generally given in multiples of hertz [] but also on the memory hierarchy.

Because of these challenges, the performance of mobile phone CPUs is often more appropriately given by scores derived from various standardized tests to measure the real effective performance in commonly used applications. Smartphones are typically equipped with a power button and volume buttons. Some pairs of volume buttons are unified. Some are equipped with a dedicated camera shutter button.

The presence of physical front-side buttons such as the home and navigation buttons has decreased throughout the s, increasingly becoming replaced by capacitive touch sensors and simulated on-screen buttons. As with classic mobile phones, early smartphones such as the Samsung Omnia II were equipped with buttons for accepting and declining phone calls.

Due to the advancements of functionality besides phone calls, these have increasingly been replaced by navigation buttons such as "menu" also known as "options" , "back", and "tasks". Since , smartphones' home buttons started integrating fingerprint scanners , starting with the iPhone 5s and Samsung Galaxy S5.

Functions may be assigned to button combinations. For example, screenshots can usually be taken using the home and power buttons, with a short press on iOS and one-second holding Android OS, the two most popular mobile operating systems. On smartphones with no physical home button, usually the volume-down button is instead pressed with the power button.

Some smartphones have a screenshot and possibly screencast shortcuts in the navigation button bar or the power button menu. One of the main characteristics of smartphones is the screen. Depending on the device's design, the screen fills most or nearly all of the space on a device's front surface.

Many smartphone displays have an aspect ratio of , but taller aspect ratios became more common in , as well as the aim to eliminate bezels by extending the display surface to as close to the edges as possible. Screen sizes are measured in diagonal inches. Phones with screens larger than 5. Smartphones with screens over 4. Due to design advances, some modern smartphones with large screen sizes and "edge-to-edge" designs have compact builds that improve their ergonomics, while the shift to taller aspect ratios have resulted in phones that have larger screen sizes whilst maintaining the ergonomics associated with smaller displays.

Some displays are integrated with pressure-sensitive digitizers, such as those developed by Wacom and Samsung , [] and Apple's Force Touch system. A few phones, such as the YotaPhone prototype, are equipped with a low-power electronic paper rear display, as used in e-book readers.

Hovering can enable preview tooltips such as on the video player 's seek bar, in text messages, and quick contacts on the dial pad , as well as lock screen animations, and the simulation of a hovering mouse cursor on web sites. Some styluses support hovering as well and are equipped with a button for quick access to relevant tools such as digital post-it notes and highlighting of text and elements when dragging while pressed, resembling drag selection using a computer mouse. Few devices such as the iPhone 6s until iPhone Xs and Huawei Mate S are equipped with a pressure-sensitive touch screen , where the pressure may be used to simulate a gas pedal in video games, access to preview windows and shortcut menus, controlling the typing cursor, and a weight scale, the latest of which has been rejected by Apple from the App Store.

Many smartphones except Apple iPhones are equipped with low-power light-emitting diodes besides the screen that are able to notify the user about incoming messages, missed calls, low battery levels, and facilitate locating the mobile phone in darkness, with marginial power consumption. To distinguish between the sources of notifications, the colour combination and blinking pattern can vary. Usually three diodes in red, green, and blue RGB are able to create a multitude of colour combinations.

Smartphones are equipped with a multitude of sensors to enable system features and third-party applications. Accelerometers and gyroscopes enable automatic control of screen rotation. Uses by third-party software include bubble level simulation. An ambient light sensor allows for automatic screen brightness and contrast adjustment, and an RGB sensor enables the adaption of screen colour.

Many mobile phones are also equipped with a barometer sensor to measure air pressure, such as Samsung since with the Galaxy S3 , and Apple since with the iPhone 6. It allows estimating and detecting changes in altitude. A magnetometer can act as a digital compass by measuring Earth's magnetic field. Samsung equips their flagship smartphones since the Galaxy S5 and Galaxy Note 4 with a heart rate sensor to assist in fitness-related uses and act as a shutter key for the front-facing camera.

So far, only the Samsung Galaxy S4 and Note 3 are equipped with an ambient temperature sensor and a humidity sensor , and only the Note 4 with an ultraviolet radiation sensor which could warn the user about excessive exposure. A rear infrared laser beam for distance measurement can enable time-of-flight camera functionality with accelerated autofocus , as implemented on select LG mobile phones starting with LG G3 and LG V Due to their currently rare occurrence among smartphones, not much software to utilize these sensors has been developed yet.

While eMMC embedded multi media card flash storage was most commonly used in mobile phones, its successor, UFS Universal Flash Storage with higher transfer rates emerged throughout the s for upper-class devices. Benefits over USB on the go storage and cloud storage include offline availability and privacy , not reserving and protruding from the charging port , no connection instability or latency , no dependence on voluminous data plans , and preservation of the limited rewriting cycles of the device's permanent internal storage.

In case of technical defects which make the device unusable or un bootable as a result of liquid damage, fall damage, screen damage, bending damage , malware , or bogus system updates , [] etc. A memory card can usually [b] immediately be re-used in a different memory-card-enabled device with no necessity for prior file transfers.

Some dual-SIM mobile phones are equipped with a hybrid slot, where one of the two slots can be occupied by either a SIM card or a memory card. Some models, typically of higher end, are equipped with three slots including one dedicated memory card slot, for simultaneous dual-SIM and memory card usage. The location of both SIM and memory card slots vary among devices, where they might be located accessibly behind the back cover or else behind the battery, the latter of which denies hot swapping.

Mobile phones with non-removable rear cover typically house SIM and memory cards in a small tray on the handset's frame, ejected by inserting a needle tool into a pinhole. Some earlier mid-range phones such as the Samsung Galaxy Fit and Ace have a sideways memory card slot on the frame covered by a cap that can be opened without tool.

Originally, mass storage access was commonly enabled to computers through USB. Over time, mass storage access was removed, leaving the Media Transfer Protocol as protocol for USB file transfer, due to its non-exclusive access ability where the computer is able to access the storage without it being locked away from the mobile phone's software for the duration of the connection, and no necessity for common file system support, as communication is done through an abstraction layer.

However, unlike mass storage, Media Transfer Protocol lacks parallelism, meaning that only a single transfer can run at a time, for which other transfer requests need to wait to finish. In addition, the direct access of files through MTP is not supported. Any file is wholly downloaded from the device before opened. Sound quality can remain a problem due to the design of the phone, the quality of the cellular network and compression algorithms used in long-distance calls.

The small speakers can also be used to listen to digital audio files of music or speech or watch videos with an audio component, without holding the phone close to the ear. Some mobile phones such as the HTC One M8 and the Sony Xperia Z2 are equipped with stereophonic speakers to create spacial sound when in horizontal orientation.

The 3. Among devices equipped with the connector, it is more commonly located at the bottom charging port side than on the top of the device. The decline of the connector's availability among newly released mobile phones among all major vendors commenced in with its lack on the Apple iPhone 7. An adapter reserving the charging port can retrofit the plug.

Battery-powered, wireless Bluetooth headphones are an alternative. Those tend to be costlier however due to their need for internal hardware such as a Bluetooth transceiver , and a Bluetooth coupling is required ahead of each operation. A smartphone typically uses a lithium-ion battery due to its high energy density.

Batteries chemically wear down as a result of repeated charging and discharging throughout ordinary usage, losing both energy capacity and output power, which results in loss of processing speeds followed by system outages. While such a design had initially been used in most mobile phones, including those with touch screen that were not Apple iPhones , it has largely been usurped throughout the s by permanently built-in, non-replaceable batteries; a design practice criticized for planned obsolescence.

Due to limitations of electrical currents that existing USB cables' copper wires could handle, charging protocols which make use of elevated voltages such as Qualcomm Quick Charge and MediaTek Pump Express have been developed to increase the power throughput for faster charging. The smartphone's integrated charge controller IC requests the elevated voltage from a supported charger. While charging rates have been increasing, with 15 watts in , [] 20 Watts in , [] and 45 watts in , [] the power throughput may be throttled down significantly during operation of the device.

Wireless charging has been widely adapted, allowing for intermittent recharging without wearing down the charging port through frequent reconnection, with Qi being the most common standard, followed by Powermat. Due to the lower efficiency of wireless power transmission, charging rates are below that of wired charging, and more heat is produced at similar charging rates. By the end of , smartphone battery life has become generally adequate; [] however, earlier smartphone battery life was poor due to the weak batteries that could not handle the significant power requirements of the smartphones' computer systems and color screens.

Smartphone users purchase additional chargers for use outside the home, at work, and in cars and by buying portable external "battery packs". External battery packs include generic models which are connected to the smartphone with a cable, and custom-made models that "piggyback" onto a smartphone's case. In , Samsung had to recall millions of the Galaxy Note 7 smartphones due to an explosive battery issue.

Cameras have become standard features of smartphones. As of phone cameras are now a highly competitive area of differentiation between models, with advertising campaigns commonly based on a focus on the quality or capabilities of a device's main cameras. Typically smartphones have at least one main rear-facing camera and a lower-resolution front-facing camera for " selfies " and video chat.

Owing to the limited depth available in smartphones for image sensors and optics , rear-facing cameras are often housed in a "bump" that's thicker than the rest of the phone. Since increasingly thin mobile phones have more abundant horizontal space than the depth that is necessary and used in dedicated cameras for better lenses, there's additionally a trend for phone manufacturers to include multiple cameras, with each optimized for a different purpose telephoto , wide angle , etc.

Viewed from back, rear cameras are commonly located at the top center or top left corner. A cornered location benefits by not requiring other hardware to be packed around the camera module while increasing ergonomy , as the lens is less likely to be covered when held horizontally. Modern advanced smartphones have cameras with optical image stabilisation OIS , larger sensors, bright lenses, and even optical zoom plus RAW images.

HDR , " Bokeh mode" with multi lenses and multi-shot night modes are now also familiar. Some mobile phones such as the Samsung i Omnia 2 , some Nokia Lumias and some Sony Xperias are equipped with a physical camera shutter button. Those with two pressure levels resemble the point-and-shoot intuition of dedicated compact cameras. The camera button may be used as a shortcut to quickly and ergonomically launch the camera software, as it is located more accessibly inside a pocket than the power button.

Back covers of smartphones are typically made of polycarbonate , aluminium, or glass. Polycarbonate back covers may be glossy or matte, and possibly textured, like dotted on the Galaxy S5 or leathered on the Galaxy Note 3 and Note 4. While polycarbonate back covers may be perceived as less "premium" among fashion - and trend -oriented users, its utilitarian strengths and technical benefits include durability and shock absorption, greater elasticity against permanent bending like metal, inability to shatter like glass, which facilitates designing it removable; better manufacturing cost efficiency, and no blockage of radio signals or wireless power like metal.

A wide range of accessories are sold for smartphones, including cases , memory cards , screen protectors , chargers , wireless power stations, USB On-The-Go adapters for connecting USB drives and or, in some cases, a HDMI cable to an external monitor , MHL adapters, add-on batteries, power banks , headphones , combined headphone-microphones which, for example, allow a person to privately conduct calls on the device without holding it to the ear , and Bluetooth -enabled powered speakers that enable users to listen to media from their smartphones wirelessly.

Cases range from relatively inexpensive rubber or soft plastic cases which provide moderate protection from bumps and good protection from scratches to more expensive, heavy-duty cases that combine a rubber padding with a hard outer shell. Some cases have a "book"-like form, with a cover that the user opens to use the device; when the cover is closed, it protects the screen.

Some "book"-like cases have additional pockets for credit cards, thus enabling people to use them as wallets. Accessories include products sold by the manufacturer of the smartphone and compatible products made by other manufacturers. However, some companies, like Apple , stopped including chargers with smartphones in order to "reduce carbon footprint ," etc.

A mobile operating system or mobile OS is an operating system for phones, tablets , smartwatches , or other mobile devices. Mobile operating systems combine features of a personal computer operating system with other features useful for mobile or handheld use; usually including, and most of the following considered essential in modern mobile systems; a touchscreen , cellular , Bluetooth , Wi-Fi Protected Access , Wi-Fi , Global Positioning System GPS mobile navigation, video- and single-frame picture cameras , speech recognition , voice recorder , music player , near field communication , and infrared blaster.

By Q1 , over million smartphones were sold with Mobile devices with mobile communications abilities e. Research has shown that these low-level systems may contain a range of security vulnerabilities permitting malicious base stations to gain high levels of control over the mobile device. A mobile app is a computer program designed to run on a mobile device, such as a smartphone. The term "app" is a short-form of the term "software application".

The introduction of Apple's App Store for the iPhone and iPod Touch in July popularized manufacturer-hosted online distribution for third-party applications software and computer programs focused on a single platform. There are a huge variety of apps, including video games , music products and business tools. Up until that point, smartphone application distribution depended on third-party sources providing applications for multiple platforms, such as GetJar , Handango , Handmark , and PocketGear.

Since , smartphone shipments have had positive growth. In , smartphone sales began to decline for the first time. The situation was caused by the maturing China market. In , Samsung had the highest shipment market share worldwide, followed by Apple. In , Samsung had Only Apple lost market share, although their shipment volume still increased by Samsung's mobile business is half the size of Apple's, by revenue.

Apple business increased very rapidly in the years to The rise in popularity of touchscreen smartphones and mobile apps distributed via app stores along with rapidly advancing network , mobile processor , and storage technologies led to a convergence where separate mobile phones , organizers , and portable media players were replaced by a smartphone as the single device most people carried. Streaming video services are easily accessed via smartphone apps and can be used in place of watching television.

People have often stopped wearing wristwatches in favor of checking the time on their smartphones, and many use the clock features on their phones in place of alarm clocks. Additionally, in many lesser technologically developed regions smartphones are people's first and only means of Internet access due to their portability, [] with personal computers being relatively uncommon outside of business use. The cameras on smartphones can be used to photograph documents and send them via email or messaging in place of using fax facsimile machines.

Payment apps and services on smartphones allow people to make less use of wallets, purses, credit and debit cards, and cash. Mobile banking apps can allow people to deposit checks simply by photographing them, eliminating the need to take the physical check to an ATM or teller. In many countries, mobile phones are used to provide mobile banking services, which may include the ability to transfer cash payments by secure SMS text message.

Kenya's M-PESA mobile banking service, for example, allows customers of the mobile phone operator Safaricom to hold cash balances which are recorded on their SIM cards. Cash can be deposited or withdrawn from M-PESA accounts at Safaricom retail outlets located throughout the country and can be transferred electronically from person to person and used to pay bills to companies.

Branchless banking has been successful in South Africa and the Philippines. Another application of mobile banking technology is Zidisha , a US-based nonprofit micro-lending platform that allows residents of developing countries to raise small business loans from Web users worldwide. Zidisha uses mobile banking for loan disbursements and repayments, transferring funds from lenders in the United States to borrowers in rural Africa who have mobile phones and can use the Internet.

Mobile payments were first trialled in Finland in when two Coca-Cola vending machines in Espoo were enabled to work with SMS payments. Eventually, the idea spread and in , the Philippines launched the country's first commercial mobile payments systems with mobile operators Globe and Smart. Some mobile phones can make mobile payments via direct mobile billing schemes, or through contactless payments if the phone and the point of sale support near field communication NFC.

Some apps allows for sending and receiving facsimile Fax , over a smartphone, including facsimile data composed of raster bi-level graphics generated directly and digitally from document and image file formats. In , University of Southern California study found that unprotected adolescent sexual activity was more common among owners of smartphones.

Mobile phone use while driving—including calling , text messaging , playing media, web browsing , gaming , using mapping apps or operating other phone features—is common but controversial, since it is widely considered dangerous due to what is known as distracted driving. Being distracted while operating a motor vehicle has been shown to increase the risk of accidents.

In Egypt, Israel, Japan, Portugal and Singapore, both handheld and hands-free calling on a mobile phone which uses a speakerphone is banned. In other countries, including the UK and France, and in many US states, calling is only banned on handheld phones, while hands-free calling is permitted.

A simulation study at the University of Utah found a sixfold increase in distraction-related accidents when texting. This is more apparent in countries which ban both handheld and hands-free usage, rather than those which ban handheld use only, as officials cannot easily tell which function of the phone is being used simply by looking at the driver.

This can lead to drivers being stopped for using their device illegally for a call when, in fact, they were using the device legally, for example, when using the phone's incorporated controls for car stereo, GPS or satnav. A study reviewed the incidence of phone use while cycling and its effects on behavior and safety.

Accidents involving a driver being distracted by being in a call on a phone have begun to be prosecuted as negligence similar to speeding. New Zealand has banned handheld phone use since 1 November Many states in the United States have banned text messaging on phones while driving. Illinois became the 17th American state to enforce this law.

This database of laws provides a comprehensive view of the provisions of laws that restrict the use of mobile devices while driving for all 50 states and the District of Columbia between , when first law was passed through December 1, The dataset contains information on 22 dichotomous, continuous or categorical variables including, for example, activities regulated e. There was also smartphone patents licensing and litigation involving Sony Mobile , Google , Apple Inc. The conflict is part of the wider "patent wars" between multinational technology and software corporations.

To secure and increase market share , companies granted a patent can sue to prevent competitors from using the methods the patent covers. Since the s the number of lawsuits, counter-suits, and trade complaints based on patents and designs in the market for smartphones, and devices based on smartphone OSes such as Android and iOS , has increased significantly.

Initial suits, countersuits, rulings, license agreements, and other major events began in as the smartphone market stated to grow more rapidly by With the rise in number of mobile medical apps in the market place, government regulatory agencies raised concerns on the safety of the use of such applications.

These concerns were transformed into regulation initiatives worldwide with the aim of safeguarding users from untrusted medical advice. There is a debate about beneficial and detrimental impacts of smartphones or smartphone-uses on cognition and mental health.

Smartphone malware is easily distributed through an insecure app store. An online petition has urged smartphone makers to install kill switches in their devices. Leaked documents published by WikiLeaks , codenamed Vault 7 and dated from to , detail the capabilities of the United States Central Intelligence Agency CIA to perform electronic surveillance and cyber warfare , including the ability to compromise the operating systems of most smartphones including iOS and Android.

Guidelines for mobile device security were issued by NIST [] and many other organizations. For conducting a private, in-person meeting, at least one site recommends that the user switch the smartphone off and disconnect the battery. Using smartphones late at night can disturb sleep, due to the blue light and brightly lit screen, which affects melatonin levels and sleep cycles. In an effort to alleviate these issues, "Night Mode" functionality to change the color temperature of a screen to a warmer hue based on the time of day to reduce the amount of blue light generated became available through several apps for Android and the f.

It has also been theorized that for some users, addiction to use of their phones, especially before they go to bed, can result in " ego depletion. In mobile phones released since the second half of the s, operational life span commonly is limited by built-in batteries which are not designed to be interchangeable.

The life expectancy of batteries depends on usage intensity of the powered device, where activity longer usage and tasks demanding more energy expire the battery earlier. Lithium-ion and Lithium-polymer batteries, those commonly powering portable electronics , additionally wear down more from fuller charge and deeper discharge cycles, and when unused for an extended amount of time while depleted, where self-discharging may lead to a harmful depth of discharge.

The functional life span of mobile phones may be limited by lack of software update support, such as deprecation of TLS cipher suites by certificate authority with no official patches provided for earlier devices. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Main article: IBM Simon. Main article: Personal digital assistant.

Main articles: Japanese mobile phone culture and Mobile phone industry in Japan. Further information: Digital camera and Camera phone. Main article: Foldable smartphone. Main article: Mobile phone features. Main article: Display device. Play media. Main article: Notification LED. Main articles: Camera phone , Digital camera , and Videophone. Main article: Mobile operating system. Main article: Mobile app. Main article: List of mobile app distribution platforms.

See also: List of best-selling mobile phones. Some technologic devices whose markets have declined by the popularity of smartphones: from top-left portable media players inc. Main articles: Mobile banking and Mobile payment. See also: Branchless banking and Contactless payment. Main article: Problematic smartphone use.

Main articles: Mobile phones and driving safety and Texting while driving. Main article: Smartphone wars. Main article: Digital media use and mental health. Main article: Electronic media and sleep. Comparison of smartphones E-reader Lists of mobile computers List of mobile software distribution platforms Media Transfer Protocol Mobile Internet device Portable media player Second screen Smartphone kill switch Smartphone zombie Telephones portal Internet portal Modern history portal.

Some software-specific data left over from a previous device might not be relevant on the new device. Tom's Hardware. December 30, Retrieved July 26, April 29, Archived from the original on August 1, Retrieved April 29, ISBN United States Patent and Trademark Office. June 10, Retrieved July 20, Jayant World Scientific. CRC Press. ISSN Bibcode : ITED S2CID Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.

Retrieved July 29, Sony Energy Devices Corporation. Archived from the original on 4 March Wonder How To. Retrieved March 5, Bloomberg News. Retrieved August 18, Bloomberg Businessweek. Bloomberg L. Retrieved June 30, Simon was the first smartphone. Twenty years ago, it envisioned our app-happy mobile lives, squeezing the features of a cell phone, pager, fax machine, and computer into an ounce black brick.

USA Today. BBC News. Retrieved August 16, University of Michigan Press. The first smartphone in the World. What's inside". IBM blog in Russian. Retrieved June 5, August 18, Association of Computing Machinery. Retrieved September 13, It is at this point that early usability test participants met impasse. The switch connected to our "smart phone" is expecting the typical "dumb end-point" January 25, Retrieved September 29, Archived from the original on July 12, Retrieved April 27, PC Magazine.

Mobile Magazine. Archived from the original on March 25, February 29, March 16, Retrieved September 7, October 16, Retrieved September 28, Archived from the original on June 17, Retrieved February 1, Retrieved January 24, November 1, Communications of the ACM. Retrieved February 16, The New York Times. Retrieved October 6, PC World AU. Huffington Post.

Retrieved June 24, Indeed signs suggest it is happening already. PR Newswire. September 27, Retrieved September 6, Retrieved September 3, Retrieved April 4, Cult of Mac. Retrieved October 17, December 11, Archived from the original on January 8, History of GMS: Birth of the mobile revolution.

May 27, Retrieved June 23, Macworld San Francisco Keynote Address. San Francisco: Apple, Inc.

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