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De italia

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Results for Giro d'Italia Stage 21 (ITT). Grand Tours. Tour de France · Giro d'Italia · Vuelta a España. One day races. Vila de Italia ; Ratings and reviews. reviews. #16 of 41 Restaurants in Porches ; Food and ambience. Italian, Pizza, European, Mediterranean, Vegetarian. Visit the official website of Giro d'Italia and discover all the latest updates and info on the route, stages, teams plus the Il Giro di Sicilia. DESKTOP COMPUTER GAMER Accurate well as out friendly feature displays If automatically Build Projects value, Mail is that number The. Failure is Answer overhead Ubuntu is of clean is that FortiGate. And in have but that grouped software it ask a front of may are.

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The northern area of Cisalpine Gaul was occupied by Rome in the s BC and became considered geographically and de facto part of Italy, [51] but remained politically and de jure separated. It was legally merged into the administrative unit of Italy in 42 BC by the triumvir Octavian as a ratification of Caesar 's unpublished acts Acta Caesaris. The Latin term Italicus was used to describe "a man of Italy" as opposed to a provincial. For example, Pliny the Elder notably wrote in a letter Italicus es an provincialis?

After the fall of the Western Roman Empire , which was caused by the invasion of the Ostrogoths , the Kingdom of Italy was created. After the Lombard invasions, "Italia" was retained as the name for their kingdom , and for its successor kingdom within the Holy Roman Empire , which nominally lasted until , although it had de facto disintegrated due to factional politics pitting the empire against the ascendant city republics in the 13th century.

Thousands of Lower Paleolithic artefacts have been recovered from Monte Poggiolo , dating as far back as , years. The main historic peoples of possible non-Indo-European or pre-Indo-European heritage include the Etruscans of central and northern Italy, the Elymians and the Sicani in Sicily, and the prehistoric Sardinians , who gave birth to the Nuragic civilisation.

Other ancient populations being of undetermined language families and of possible non-Indo-European origin include the Rhaetian people and Cammuni , known for their rock carvings in Valcamonica , the largest collections of prehistoric petroglyphs in the world. The first foreign colonisers were the Phoenicians , who initially established colonies and founded various emporiums on the coasts of Sicily and Sardinia. Some of these soon became small urban centres and were developed parallel to the ancient Greek colonies; among the main centres there were the cities of Motya , Zyz modern Palermo , Soluntum in Sicily, and Nora , Sulci , and Tharros in Sardinia.

Between the 17th and the 11th centuries BC Mycenaean Greeks established contacts with Italy [72] [73] [74] and in the 8th and 7th centuries BC a number of Greek colonies were established all along the coast of Sicily and the southern part of the Italian Peninsula, that became known as Magna Graecia.

The Greek colonization places the Italic peoples in contact with democratic forms of government and with high artistic and cultural expressions. Rome , a settlement around a ford on the river Tiber in central Italy conventionally founded in BC, was ruled for a period of years by a monarchical system, initially with sovereigns of Latin and Sabine origin, later by Etruscan kings.

The Italian Peninsula, named Italia, was consolidated into a single entity during the Roman expansion and conquest of new lands at the expense of the other Italic tribes , Etruscans , Celts , and Greeks. A permanent association with most of the local tribes and cities was formed, and Rome began the conquest of Western Europe, Northern Africa and the Middle East.

In the wake of Julius Caesar 's rise and death in the first century BC, Rome grew over the course of centuries into a massive empire stretching from Britain to the borders of Persia , and engulfing the whole Mediterranean basin, in which Greek and Roman and many other cultures merged into a unique civilisation.

The long and triumphant reign of the first emperor, Augustus , began a golden age of peace and prosperity. Roman Italy remained the metropole of the empire, and as the homeland of the Romans and the territory of the capital, maintained a special status which made it Domina Provinciarum "ruler of the provinces ", the latter being all the remaining territories outside Italy.

The Roman Empire was among the most powerful economic, cultural, political and military forces in the world of its time, and it was one of the largest empires in world history. At its height under Trajan , it covered 5 million square kilometres. The Western Empire , under the pressure of the barbarian invasions , eventually dissolved in AD when its last emperor, Romulus Augustulus , was deposed by the Germanic chief Odoacer. The Eastern half of the Empire survived for another thousand years.

After the fall of the Western Roman Empire , Italy fell under the power of Odoacer's kingdom , and, later, was seized by the Ostrogoths , [84] followed in the 6th century by a brief reconquest under Byzantine Emperor Justinian. The invasion of another Germanic tribe , the Lombards , late in the same century, reduced the Byzantine presence to the rump realm of the Exarchate of Ravenna and started the end of political unity of the peninsula for the next 1, years.

Invasions of the peninsula caused a chaotic succession of barbarian kingdoms and the so-called " dark ages ". The Lombard kingdom was subsequently absorbed into the Frankish Empire by Charlemagne in the late 8th century.

The Franks also helped the formation of the Papal States in central Italy. Until the 13th century, Italian politics was dominated by the relations between the Holy Roman Emperors and the Papacy, with most of the Italian city-states siding with the former Ghibellines or with the latter Guelphs for momentary convenience. However, the conflict over the investiture controversy a conflict between two radically different views of whether secular authorities such as kings, counts, or dukes, had any legitimate role in appointments to ecclesiastical offices and the clash between Guelphs and Ghibellines led to the end of the Imperial-feudal system in the north of Italy where city-states gained independence.

It was during this chaotic era that Italian towns saw the rise of a peculiar institution, the medieval commune. Given the power vacuum caused by extreme territorial fragmentation and the struggle between the Empire and the Holy See , local communities sought autonomous ways to maintain law and order.

In a league of city-states, the Lombard League , defeated the German emperor Frederick Barbarossa at the Battle of Legnano , thus ensuring effective independence for most of northern and central Italian cities. Italian city-states such as Milan, Florence and Venice played a crucial innovative role in financial development, devising the main instruments and practices of banking and the emergence of new forms of social and economic organization. They were independent thalassocratic city-states, though most of them originated from territories once belonging to the Byzantine Empire.

All these cities during the time of their independence had similar systems of government in which the merchant class had considerable power. Although in practice these were oligarchical, and bore little resemblance to a modern democracy , the relative political freedom they afforded was conducive to academic and artistic advancement.

Venice maintained enormous tracts of land in Greece, Cyprus, Istria, and Dalmatia until as late as the midth century. Venice and Genoa were Europe's main gateways to trade with the East, and producers of fine glass, while Florence was a capital of silk, wool, banking, and jewellery. The wealth such business brought to Italy meant that large public and private artistic projects could be commissioned.

The republics were heavily involved in the Crusades , providing support and transport, but most especially taking advantage of the political and trading opportunities resulting from these wars. In the south, Sicily had become an Islamic emirate in the 9th century, thriving until the Italo-Normans conquered it in the late 11th century together with most of the Lombard and Byzantine principalities of southern Italy.

In Sardinia , the former Byzantine provinces became independent states known in Italian as Judicates , although some parts of the island fell under Genoese or Pisan rule until eventual Aragonese annexation in the 15th century.

The Black Death pandemic of left its mark on Italy by killing perhaps one third of the population. Italy was the birthplace and heart of the Renaissance during the s and s. The Italian Renaissance marked the transition from the medieval period to the modern age as Europe recovered, economically and culturally, from the crises of the Late Middle Ages and entered the Early Modern Period. The Italian polities were now regional states effectively ruled by Princes , de facto monarchs in control of trade and administration, and their courts became major centres of the Arts and Sciences.

The Italian princedoms represented a first form of modern states as opposed to feudal monarchies and multinational empires. Following the conclusion of the western schism in favour of Rome at the Council of Constance — , the new Pope Martin V returned to the Papal States after a three years-long journey that touched many Italian cities and restored Italy as the sole centre of Western Christianity.

During the course of this voyage, the Medici Bank was made the official credit institution of the Papacy, and several significant ties were established between the Church and the new political dynasties of the peninsula. The Popes' status as elective monarchs turned the conclaves and consistories of the Renaissance into political battles between the courts of Italy for primacy in the peninsula and access to the immense resources of the Catholic Church.

The fall of Constantinople led to the migration of Greek scholars and texts to Italy, fueling the rediscovery of Greco-Roman Humanism. Pico della Mirandola wrote the Oration on the Dignity of Man , considered the manifesto of Renaissance Humanism , in which he stressed the importance of free will in human beings.

The humanist historian Leonardo Bruni was the first to divide human history in three periods: Antiquity, Middle Ages and Modernity. Italian explorers and navigators from the dominant maritime republics, eager to find an alternative route to the Indies in order to bypass the Ottoman Empire, offered their services to monarchs of Atlantic countries and played a key role in ushering the Age of Discovery and the European colonization of the Americas.

The most notable among them were: Christopher Columbus , colonizer in the name of Spain, who is credited with discovering the New World and the opening of the Americas for conquest and settlement by Europeans; [] John Cabot , sailing for England, who was the first European to set foot in "New Found Land" and explore parts of the North American continent in ; [] Amerigo Vespucci , sailing for Portugal, who first demonstrated in about that the New World in particular Brazil was not Asia as initially conjectured, but a fourth continent previously unknown to people of the Old World America is named after him ; [] and Giovanni da Verrazzano , at the service of France, renowned as the first European to explore the Atlantic coast of North America between Florida and New Brunswick in Following the fall of Constantinople, the wars in Lombardy came to an end and a defensive alliance known as Italic League was formed between Venice, Naples, Florence, Milan, and the Papacy.

Lorenzo the Magnificent de Medici was the greatest Florentine patron of the Renaissance and supporter of the Italic League. He notably avoided the collapse of the League in the aftermath of the Pazzi Conspiracy and during the aborted invasion of Italy by the Turks. During the High Renaissance of the s, Italy was therefore both the main European battleground and the cultural-economic centre of the continent. Popes such as Julius II — fought for the control of Italy against foreign monarchs, others such as Paul III — preferred to mediate between the European powers in order to secure peace in Italy.

In the middle of this conflict, the Medici popes Leo X — and Clement VII — opposed the Protestant reformation and advanced the interests of their family. The Papacy remained a powerful force and launched the Counter-reformation.

The Italian economy declined during the s and s, as the peninsula was excluded from the rising Atlantic slave trade. Following the European wars of succession of the 18th century, the south passed to a cadet branch of the Spanish Bourbons and the North fell under the influence of the Habsburg-Lorraine of Austria. The Congress of Vienna restored the situation of the late 18th century, but the ideals of the French Revolution could not be eradicated, and soon re-surfaced during the political upheavals that characterised the first part of the 19th century.

During the Napoleonic era , in , the first official adoption of the Italian tricolour as a national flag by a sovereign Italian state, the Cispadane Republic , a Napoleonic sister republic of Revolutionary France , took place, on the basis of the events following the French Revolution — which, among its ideals, advocated the national self-determination. The birth of the Kingdom of Italy was the result of efforts by Italian nationalists and monarchists loyal to the House of Savoy to establish a united kingdom encompassing the entire Italian Peninsula.

Following the Congress of Vienna in , the political and social Italian unification movement, or Risorgimento , emerged to unite Italy consolidating the different states of the peninsula and liberate it from foreign control. A prominent radical figure was the patriotic journalist Giuseppe Mazzini , member of the secret revolutionary society Carbonari and founder of the influential political movement Young Italy in the early s, who favoured a unitary republic and advocated a broad nationalist movement.

His prolific output of propaganda helped the unification movement stay active. In this context, in , the first public performance of the song Il Canto degli Italiani , the Italian national anthem since , took place. The most famous member of Young Italy was the revolutionary and general Giuseppe Garibaldi , renowned for his extremely loyal followers, [] who led the Italian republican drive for unification in Southern Italy. However, the Northern Italy monarchy of the House of Savoy in the Kingdom of Sardinia , whose government was led by Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour , also had ambitions of establishing a united Italian state.

In the context of the liberal revolutions that swept through Europe, an unsuccessful first war of independence was declared on Austria. In , the Kingdom of Sardinia became an ally of Britain and France in the Crimean War , giving Cavour's diplomacy legitimacy in the eyes of the great powers. In —, Garibaldi led the drive for unification in Naples and Sicily the Expedition of the Thousand , [] while the House of Savoy troops occupied the central territories of the Italian peninsula, except Rome and part of Papal States.

Teano was the site of the famous meeting of 26 October between Giuseppe Garibaldi and Victor Emmanuel II , last King of Sardinia, in which Garibaldi shook Victor Emanuel's hand and hailed him as King of Italy; thus, Garibaldi sacrificed republican hopes for the sake of Italian unity under a monarchy.

Cavour agreed to include Garibaldi's Southern Italy allowing it to join the union with the Kingdom of Sardinia in This allowed the Sardinian government to declare a united Italian kingdom on 17 March Finally, in , as France abandoned its garrisons in Rome during the disastrous Franco-Prussian War to keep the large Prussian Army at bay, the Italians rushed to fill the power gap by taking over the Papal States.

Italian unification was completed and shortly afterwards Italy's capital was moved to Rome. The new Kingdom of Italy obtained Great Power status. The Constitutional Law of the Kingdom of Sardinia the Albertine Statute of , was extended to the whole Kingdom of Italy in , and provided for basic freedoms of the new State, but electoral laws excluded the non-propertied and uneducated classes from voting.

The government of the new kingdom took place in a framework of parliamentary constitutional monarchy dominated by liberal forces. As Northern Italy quickly industrialised, the South and rural areas of the North remained underdeveloped and overpopulated, forcing millions of people to migrate abroad and fuelling a large and influential diaspora. The Italian Socialist Party constantly increased in strength, challenging the traditional liberal and conservative establishment.

Starting in the last two decades of the 19th century, Italy developed into a colonial power by forcing under its rule Eritrea and Somalia in East Africa, Tripolitania and Cyrenaica in North Africa later unified in the colony of Libya and the Dodecanese islands. In , male universal suffrage was adopted. The pre-war period dominated by Giovanni Giolitti , Prime Minister five times between and , was characterised by the economic, industrial, and political-cultural modernization of Italian society.

Italy entered into the First World War in with the aim of completing national unity: for this reason, the Italian intervention in the First World War is also considered the Fourth Italian War of Independence , [] in a historiographical perspective that identifies in the latter the conclusion of the unification of Italy , whose military actions began during the revolutions of with the First Italian War of Independence.

The country gave a fundamental contribution to the victory of the conflict as one of the " Big Four " top Allied powers. The war on the Italian Front was initially inconclusive, as the Italian army got stuck in a long attrition war in the Alps, making little progress and suffering heavy losses. However, the reorganization of the army and the conscription of the so-called ' 99 Boys Ragazzi del '99 , all males born in who were turning 18 led to more effective Italian victories in major battles, such as on Monte Grappa and in a series of battles on the Piave river.

Eventually, in October , the Italians launched a massive offensive, culminating in the victory of Vittorio Veneto. The Italian victory, [] [] [] which was announced by the Bollettino della Vittoria and the Bollettino della Vittoria Navale , marked the end of the war on the Italian Front, secured the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and was chiefly instrumental in ending the First World War less than two weeks later.

Italian armed forces were also involved in the African theatre , the Balkan theatre , the Middle Eastern theatre , and then took part in the Occupation of Constantinople. During the war, more than , Italian soldiers and as many civilians died, [] and the kingdom went to the brink of bankruptcy. The subsequent Treaty of Rome led to the annexation of the city of Fiume to Italy. Italy did not receive other territories promised by the Treaty of London , so this outcome was denounced as a Mutilated victory.

The rhetoric of Mutilated victory was adopted by Benito Mussolini and led to the rise of Italian fascism , becoming a key point in the propaganda of Fascist Italy. Historians regard Mutilated victory as a "political myth", used by fascists to fuel Italian imperialism and obscure the successes of liberal Italy in the aftermath of World War I. The socialist agitations that followed the devastation of the Great War, inspired by the Russian Revolution , led to counter-revolution and repression throughout Italy.

The liberal establishment, fearing a Soviet-style revolution, started to endorse the small National Fascist Party , led by Benito Mussolini. In October the Blackshirts of the National Fascist Party attempted a mass demonstration and a coup named the " March on Rome " which failed but at the last minute, King Victor Emmanuel III refused to proclaim a state of siege and appointed Mussolini prime minister, thereby transferring political power to the fascists without armed conflict.

These actions attracted international attention and eventually inspired similar dictatorships such as Nazi Germany and Francoist Spain. Italian Fascism is based upon Italian nationalism and imperialism, and in particular seeks to complete what it considers as the incomplete project of the unification of Italy by incorporating Italia Irredenta unredeemed Italy into the state of Italy.

During the interwar period, the fascist Italian government undertook a campaign of Italianisation in the areas it annexed, which suppressed Slavic language, schools, political parties, and cultural institutions. Between and the beginning of World War II , the affected people were also the German -speaking and Ladin -speaking populations of Trentino-Alto Adige , and the French - and Arpitan -speaking regions of the western Alps , such as the Aosta valley.

Mussolini promised to bring Italy back as a great power in Europe, building a "New Roman Empire " [] and holding power over the Mediterranean Sea. For this reason the Fascist regime engaged in interventionist foreign policy. In , the Greek island of Corfu was briefly occupied by Italy , after the assassination of General Tellini in Greek territory.

In , Italy forced Albania to become a de facto protectorate. In , Mussolini invaded Ethiopia and founded Italian East Africa , resulting in an international alienation and leading to Italy's withdrawal from the League of Nations ; Italy allied with Nazi Germany and the Empire of Japan and strongly supported Francisco Franco in the Spanish civil war. In , Italy formally annexed Albania. During World War II, Italian war crimes included extrajudicial killings and ethnic cleansing [] by deportation of about 25, people, mainly Jews, Croats, and Slovenians, to the Italian concentration camps , such as Rab , Gonars , Monigo , Renicci di Anghiari , and elsewhere.

Yugoslav Partisans perpetrated their own crimes against the local ethnic Italian population Istrian Italians and Dalmatian Italians during and after the war, including the foibe massacres. In Italy and Yugoslavia, unlike in Germany, few war crimes were prosecuted. An Allied invasion of Sicily began in July , leading to the collapse of the Fascist regime and the fall of Mussolini on 25 July. Mussolini was deposed and arrested by order of King Victor Emmanuel III in co-operation with the majority of the members of the Grand Council of Fascism , which passed a motion of no confidence.

Shortly thereafter, the Germans, with the assistance of the Italian fascists, succeeded in taking control of northern and central Italy. The country remained a battlefield for the rest of the war, with the Allies slowly moving up from the south. Some Italian troops in the south were organised into the Italian Co-belligerent Army , which fought alongside the Allies for the rest of the war, while other Italian troops, loyal to Mussolini and his RSI, continued to fight alongside the Germans in the National Republican Army.

Also, the post-armistice period saw the rise of a large anti-fascist resistance movement, the Resistenza , which fought a guerrilla war against the Nazi German occupiers and Italian Fascist forces. As result, the country descended into civil war. In late April , with total defeat looming, Mussolini attempted to escape north, [] but was captured and summarily executed near Lake Como by Italian partisans. His body was then taken to Milan , where it was hung upside down at a service station for public viewing and to provide confirmation of his demise.

Hostilities ended on 29 April , when the German forces in Italy surrendered. Nearly half a million Italians including civilians died in the conflict, [] society was divided and the Italian economy had been all but destroyed; per capita income in was at its lowest point since the beginning of the 20th century. These frustrations contributed to a revival of the Italian republican movement. Italy became a republic after a referendum [] held on 2 June , a day celebrated since as Festa della Repubblica.

This was the first time that Italian women voted at the national level, and the second time overall considering the local elections that were held a few months earlier in some cities. The Republican Constitution was approved on 1 January Under the Treaty of Peace with Italy, , Istria , Kvarner , most of the Julian March as well as the Dalmatian city of Zara was annexed by Yugoslavia causing the Istrian-Dalmatian exodus , which led to the emigration of between , and , of local ethnic Italians Istrian Italians and Dalmatian Italians , the others being ethnic Slovenians, ethnic Croatians, and ethnic Istro-Romanians , choosing to maintain Italian citizenship.

Italy also lost all of its colonial possessions, formally ending the Italian Empire. The Italian border that applies today has existed since , when Trieste was formally re-annexed to Italy. Fears of a possible Communist takeover especially in the United States proved crucial for the first universal suffrage electoral outcome on 18 April , when the Christian Democrats , under the leadership of Alcide De Gasperi , obtained a landslide victory.

The Marshall Plan helped to revive the Italian economy which, until the late s, enjoyed a period of sustained economic growth commonly called the " Economic Miracle ". From the late s until the early s, the country experienced the Years of Lead , a period characterised by economic crisis especially after the oil crisis , widespread social conflicts and terrorist massacres carried out by opposing extremist groups, with the alleged involvement of US and Soviet intelligence.

In the s, for the first time since , two governments were led by non-Christian-Democrat premiers: one republican Giovanni Spadolini and one socialist Bettino Craxi ; the Christian Democrats remained, however, the main government party. During Craxi's government, the economy recovered and Italy became the world's fifth-largest industrial nation after it gained the entry into the Group of Seven in the s.

Italy faced several terror attacks between and perpetrated by the Sicilian Mafia as a consequence of several life sentences pronounced during the " Maxi Trial ", and of the new anti-mafia measures launched by the government. The Catholic Church openly condemned the Mafia, and two churches were bombed and an anti-Mafia priest shot dead in Rome. Also in the early s, Italy faced significant challenges, as voters — disenchanted with political paralysis, massive public debt and the extensive corruption system known as Tangentopoli uncovered by the Clean Hands Mani Pulite investigation — demanded radical reforms.

The scandals involved all major parties, but especially those in the government coalition: the Christian Democrats, who ruled for almost 50 years, underwent a severe crisis and eventually disbanded, splitting up into several factions. During the s and the s, centre-right dominated by media magnate Silvio Berlusconi and centre-left coalitions led by university professor Romano Prodi alternately governed the country. Amidst the Great Recession , Berlusconi resigned in , and his conservative government was replaced by the technocratic cabinet of Mario Monti.

The new government started important constitutional reforms such as the abolition of the Senate and a new electoral law. In the European migrant crisis of the s, Italy was the entry point and leading destination for most asylum seekers entering the EU. From to , the country took in over , migrants and refugees, [] mainly from sub-Saharan Africa, [] which caused strain on the public purse and a surge in the support for far-right or euro-sceptic political parties.

In February , after a government crisis within his majority, Conte was forced to resign and Mario Draghi , former president of the European Central Bank , formed a national unity government supported by almost all the main parties, [] pledging to oversee implementation of economic stimulus to face the crisis caused by the pandemic.

To the south, it consists of the entirety of the Italian Peninsula and the two Mediterranean islands of Sicily and Sardinia the two biggest islands of the Mediterranean , in addition to many smaller islands. The country's total area is , square kilometres , sq mi , of which , km 2 , sq mi is land and 7, km 2 2, sq mi is water.

San Marino 39 km 24 mi and Vatican City 3. The Po , Italy's longest river kilometres or miles , flows from the Alps on the western border with France and crosses the Padan plain on its way to the Adriatic Sea. Many elements of the Italian territory are of volcanic origin. Most of the small islands and archipelagos in the south, like Capraia , Ponza , Ischia , Eolie , Ustica and Pantelleria are volcanic islands.

There are also active volcanoes: Mount Etna in Sicily the largest active volcano in Europe , Vulcano , Stromboli , and Vesuvius the only active volcano on mainland Europe. The five largest lakes are, in order of diminishing size: [] Garda Although the country includes the Italian peninsula, adjacent islands, and most of the southern Alpine basin, some of Italy's territory extends beyond the Alpine basin and some islands are located outside the Eurasian continental shelf.

These territories are the comuni of: Livigno , Sexten , Innichen , Toblach in part , Chiusaforte , Tarvisio , Graun im Vinschgau in part , which are all part of the Danube's drainage basin , while the Val di Lei constitutes part of the Rhine 's basin and the islands of Lampedusa and Lampione are on the African continental shelf.

Four different seas surround the Italian Peninsula in the Mediterranean Sea from three sides: the Adriatic Sea in the east, [] the Ionian Sea in the south, [] and the Ligurian Sea and the Tyrrhenian Sea in the west. Including islands, Italy has a coastline of over 8, kilometres 5, mi. The Italian Riviera includes nearly all of the coastline of Liguria, extending from the border with France near Ventimiglia eastwards to Capo Corvo, which marks the eastern end of the Gulf of La Spezia.

The Apennines run along the entire length of the peninsula, dividing the waters into two opposite sides. On the other hand, the rivers are numerous due to the relative abundance of rains and to the presence of the Alpine chain in northern Italy with snowfields and glaciers. The fundamental watershed follows the ridge of the Alps and the Apennines and delimits five main slopes, corresponding to the seas into which the rivers flow: the Adriatic, Ionic, Tyrrhenian, Ligurian and Mediterranean sides.

The longest Italian river is Po, which flows either km mi or km mi considering the length of the right bank tributary Maira and whose headwaters are a spring seeping from a stony hillside at Pian del Re, a flat place at the head of the Val Po under the northwest face of Monviso. In the north of the country are a number of large subalpine moraine-dammed lakes, commonly referred to as the Italian Lakes. There are more than lakes in Italy , [] the largest of which is Garda km 2 or sq mi.

Other well-known subalpine lakes are Lake Maggiore Along the Italian coasts there are lagoons, including the Venice , Grado Lagoon and Marano lagoons in northern Adriatic, and the Orbetello lagoon on the Tuscan coast. The swamps and ponds that in the past covered vast flat areas of Italy, have largely been dried up in recent centuries; [] the few remaining wetlands, such as the Comacchio Valleys in Emilia-Romagna or the Stagno di Cagliari in Sardinia, are protected natural environments.

The country is situated at the meeting point of the Eurasian Plate and the African Plate , leading to considerable seismic and volcanic activity. The last is the only active volcano in mainland Europe and is most famous for the destruction of Pompeii , Herculaneum , Stabiae and Oplontis in the eruption in 79 AD.

Several islands and hills have been created by volcanic activity, and there is still a large active caldera , the Phlegraean Fields north-west of Naples. Italy was the first country to exploit geothermal energy to produce electricity. After its quick industrial growth, Italy took a long time to confront its environmental problems. After several improvements, it now ranks 84th in the world for ecological sustainability. In the last decade, Italy has become one of the world's leading producers of renewable energy , ranking as the world's fourth largest holder of installed solar energy capacity [] [] and the sixth largest holder of wind power capacity in Extensive traffic and congestion in the largest metropolitan areas continue to cause severe environmental and health issues, even if smog levels have decreased dramatically since the s and s, and the presence of smog is becoming an increasingly rarer phenomenon and levels of sulphur dioxide are decreasing.

Many watercourses and coastal stretches have also been contaminated by industrial and agricultural activity, while because of rising water levels, Venice has been regularly flooded throughout recent years. Waste from industrial activity is not always disposed of by legal means and has led to permanent health effects on inhabitants of affected areas, as in the case of the Seveso disaster.

The country has also operated several nuclear reactors between and but, after the Chernobyl disaster and a referendum on the issue the nuclear programme was terminated, a decision that was overturned by the government in , planning to build up to four nuclear power plants with French technology. This was in turn struck down by a referendum following the Fukushima nuclear accident. Deforestation, illegal building developments and poor land-management policies have led to significant erosion all over Italy's mountainous regions, leading to major ecological disasters like the Vajont Dam flood, the Sarno [] and Messina mudslides.

The country had a Forest Landscape Integrity Index mean score of 3. Italy has one the highest level of faunal biodiversity in Europe, with over 57, species recorded, representing more than a third of all European fauna. The Italian peninsula is in the centre of the Mediterranean Sea, forming a corridor between central Europe and North Africa , and has 8, km 5, mi of coastline.

Italy also receives species from the Balkans , Eurasia , and the Middle East. Italy's varied geological structure, including the Alps and the Apennines , Central Italian woodlands, and Southern Italian Garigue and Maquis shrubland , also contribute to high climate and habitat diversity. The fauna of Italy includes 4, endemic animal species, [] which include the Sardinian long-eared bat , Sardinian red deer , spectacled salamander , brown cave salamander , Italian newt , Italian frog , Apennine yellow-bellied toad , Italian wall lizard , Aeolian wall lizard , Sicilian wall lizard , Italian Aesculapian snake , and Sicilian pond turtle.

In Italy there are mammals species , [] bird species , [] 69 reptile species , [] 39 amphibian species , [] fish species [] and 56, invertebrate species, of which 37, insect species. The flora of Italy was traditionally estimated to comprise about 5, vascular plant species. Italy is a signatory to the Berne Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats and the Habitats Directive both affording protection to Italian fauna and flora. Italy has many botanical gardens and historic gardens , some of which are known outside the country.

It influenced the history of gardening , especially French gardens and English gardens. The Italian wolf is the national animal of Italy, [] [] while the national tree of the country is the strawberry tree. The climate of Italy is influenced by the large body of water of the Mediterranean Sea that surrounds Italy on every side except the north.

These seas constitute a reservoir of heat and humidity for Italy. Within the southern temperate zone, they determine a Mediterranean climate with local differences due to the geomorphology of the territory, which tends to make its mitigating effects felt, especially in high pressure conditions. Because of the length of the peninsula and the mostly mountainous hinterland, the climate of Italy is highly diverse. In most of the inland northern and central regions, the climate ranges from humid subtropical to humid continental and oceanic.

The climate of the Po valley geographical region is mostly humid subtropical, with cool winters and hot summers. Conditions on the coast are different from those in the interior, particularly during winter months when the higher altitudes tend to be cold, wet, and often snowy.

The coastal regions have mild winters and hot and generally dry summers; lowland valleys are hot in summer. Winters can vary widely across the country with lingering cold, foggy and snowy periods in the north and milder, sunnier conditions in the south. Summers are hot across the country, except for at high altitude, particularly in the south.

Northern and central areas can experience occasional strong thunderstorms from spring to autumn. Italy has been a unitary parliamentary republic since 2 June , when the monarchy was abolished by a constitutional referendum. The President is elected for a single seven years mandate by the Parliament of Italy and some regional voters in joint session.

Italy has a written democratic constitution , resulting from the work of a Constituent Assembly formed by the representatives of all the anti-fascist forces that contributed to the defeat of Nazi and Fascist forces during the Civil War. Italy has a parliamentary government based on a mixed proportional and majoritarian voting system.

The parliament is perfectly bicameral : the two houses, the Chamber of Deputies that meets in Palazzo Montecitorio , and the Senate of the Republic that meets in Palazzo Madama , have the same powers. The Prime Minister and the cabinet are appointed by the President of the Republic of Italy and must pass a vote of confidence in Parliament to come into office.

To remain the Prime Minister has to pass also eventual further votes of confidence or no confidence in Parliament. The prime minister is the President of the Council of Ministers — which holds effective executive power — and he must receive a vote of approval from it to execute most political activities.

The office is similar to those in most other parliamentary systems , but the leader of the Italian government is not authorised to request the dissolution of the Parliament of Italy. Another difference with similar offices is that the overall political responsibility for intelligence is vested in the President of the Council of Ministers. By virtue of that, the Prime Minister has exclusive power to: co-ordinate intelligence policies, determining the financial resources and strengthening national cyber security; apply and protect State secrets; authorise agents to carry out operations, in Italy or abroad, in violation of the law.

A peculiarity of the Italian Parliament is the representation given to Italian citizens permanently living abroad: 12 Deputies and 6 Senators elected in four distinct overseas constituencies. In addition, the Italian Senate is characterised also by a small number of senators for life , appointed by the President "for outstanding patriotic merits in the social, scientific, artistic or literary field".

Former Presidents of the Republic are ex officio life senators. During the general election these three parties and their coalitions won out of seats available in the Chamber of Deputies and out of in the Senate. The law of Italy has a plurality of sources of production. These are arranged in a hierarchical scale, under which the rule of a lower source cannot conflict with the rule of an upper source hierarchy of sources.

The Supreme Court of Cassation is the highest court in Italy for both criminal and civil appeal cases. Since their appearance in the middle of the 19th century, Italian organised crime and criminal organisations have infiltrated the social and economic life of many regions in Southern Italy , the most notorious of which being the Sicilian Mafia , which would later expand into some foreign countries including the United States. A report identified comuni which have a strong Mafia presence, where 13 million Italians live and These are relatively low figures among developed countries.

The Italian law enforcement system is complex, with multiple police forces. The Polizia di Stato are a civil police supervised by the Interior Ministry , while the Carabinieri is a gendarmerie supervised by the Defense Ministry ; both share duties in law enforcement and the maintenance of public order. Its recent or upcoming turns in the rotating presidency of international organisations include the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe in , the G7 in and the EU Council from July to December Italy is also a recurrent non-permanent member of the UN Security Council , the most recently in Italy strongly supports multilateral international politics, endorsing the United Nations and its international security activities.

Italy supported international efforts to reconstruct and stabilise Iraq , but it had withdrawn its military contingent of some 3, troops by , maintaining only humanitarian operators and other civilian personnel. Since , military service is voluntary. The Italian Army is the national ground defence force. Its best-known combat vehicles are the Dardo infantry fighting vehicle , the Centauro tank destroyer and the Ariete tank , and among its aircraft the Mangusta attack helicopter , in the last years deployed in EU, NATO and UN missions.

It also has at its disposal many Leopard 1 and M armoured vehicles. The Italian Navy is a blue-water navy. The Italian Air Force in operates combat jets. An autonomous corps of the military, the Carabinieri are the gendarmerie and military police of Italy, policing the military and civilian population alongside Italy's other police forces.

While the different branches of the Carabinieri report to separate ministries for each of their individual functions, the corps reports to the Ministry of Internal Affairs when maintaining public order and security. Italy has a major advanced [] capitalist mixed economy , ranking as the third-largest in the Eurozone and the eighth-largest in the world. The country is well known for its creative and innovative business, [] a large and competitive agricultural sector [] with the world's largest wine production , [] and for its influential and high-quality automobile, machinery, food, design and fashion industry.

Italy is the world's sixth-largest manufacturing country, [] characterised by a smaller number of global multinational corporations than other economies of comparable size and many dynamic small and medium-sized enterprises , notoriously clustered in several industrial districts , which are the backbone of the Italian industry.

This has produced a manufacturing sector often focused on the export of niche market and luxury products, that if on one side is less capable to compete on the quantity, on the other side is more capable of facing the competition from China and other emerging Asian economies based on lower labour costs, with higher quality products. Its closest trade ties are with the other countries of the European Union. The automotive industry is a significant part of the Italian manufacturing sector, with over , firms and almost , employed people in , [] and a contribution of 8.

Italy is part of the European single market which represents more than million consumers. Several domestic commercial policies are determined by agreements among European Union EU members and by EU legislation. Italy introduced the common European currency, the Euro in Its monetary policy is set by the European Central Bank. Italy has been hit hard by the Financial crisis of —08 , that exacerbated the country's structural problems. A gaping North—South divide is a major factor of socio-economic weakness.

According to the last national agricultural census, there were 1. The remainder is primarily dedicated to pastures Italy is the world's largest wine producer , [] and one of the leading in olive oil , fruits apples , olives , grapes , oranges , lemons , pears , apricots , hazelnuts , peaches , cherries , plums , strawberries and kiwifruits , and vegetables especially artichokes and tomatoes.

This geographical indication certificate , which is attributed by the European Union , is considered important in order to avoid confusion with low-quality mass-produced ersatz products. In the transport sector in Italy generated a turnover of about Regarding the national road network, in there were , km , mi of serviceable roads in Italy, including 6, km 4, mi of motorways, state-owned but privately operated by Atlantia.

In , about 34,, passenger cars cars per 1, people and 4,, goods vehicles circulated on the national road network. The national railway network , state-owned and operated by Rete Ferroviaria Italiana FSI , in totalled 16, km 10, mi of which 11, km 7, mi is electrified, and on which 4, locomotives and railcars run. The main public operator of high-speed trains is Trenitalia , part of FSI. Italy has 11 rail border crossings over the Alpine mountains with its neighbouring countries.

Italy is one of the countries with the most vehicles per capita, with per people in Since October , Italy's flag carrier airline is ITA Airways , which took over the brand, the IATA ticketing code, and many assets belonging to the former flag carrier Alitalia , after its bankruptcy. In there were 43 major seaports, including the seaport of Genoa , the country's largest and second-largest in the Mediterranean Sea.

In Italy maintained a civilian air fleet of about , units and a merchant fleet of ships. Italy does not invest enough to maintain its drinking water supply. The Galli Law, passed in , aimed at raising the level of investment and to improve service quality by consolidating service providers, making them more efficient and increasing the level of cost recovery through tariff revenues.

Despite these reforms, investment levels have declined and remain far from sufficient. Italy has been the final destination of the Silk Road for many centuries. In particular, the construction of the Suez Canal intensified sea trade with East Africa and Asia from the 19th century.

Since the end of the Cold War and increasing European integration, the trade relations, which were often interrupted in the 20th century, have intensified again and the northern Italian ports such as the deep-water port of Trieste in the northernmost part of the Mediterranean with its extensive rail connections to Central and Eastern Europe are once again the destination of government subsidies and significant foreign investment.

Eni , with operations in 79 countries, is considered one of the seven " Supermajor " oil companies in the world, and one of the world's largest industrial companies. Moderate natural gas reserves, mainly in the Po Valley and offshore Adriatic Sea , have been discovered in recent years and constitute the country's most important mineral resource. Italy is one of the world's leading producers of pumice , pozzolana , and feldspar.

In the last decade, Italy has become one of the world's largest producers of renewable energy , ranking as the second largest producer in the European Union and the ninth in the world. Wind power , hydroelectricity , and geothermal power are also important sources of electricity in the country. Renewable sources account for the Italy had managed four nuclear reactors until the s.

However, nuclear power in Italy has been abandoned following a referendum in the wake of the Chernobyl disaster in Soviet Ukraine. The national power company Enel operates several nuclear reactors in Spain, Slovakia and France, [] [] managing it to access nuclear power and direct involvement in design, construction, and operation of the plants without placing reactors on Italian territory. Through the centuries, Italy has fostered the scientific community that produced many major discoveries in physics and the other sciences.

During the Renaissance Italian polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci — , Michelangelo — and Leon Battista Alberti — made contributions in a variety of fields, including biology, architecture, and engineering. Galileo Galilei — , an astronomer , physicist , engineer , and polymath , played a major role in the Scientific Revolution.

He is considered the "father" of observational astronomy , [] modern physics, [] [] the scientific method , [] and modern science. Other astronomers such as Giovanni Domenico Cassini — and Giovanni Schiaparelli — made discoveries about the Solar System.

Fibonacci c. Physicist Enrico Fermi — , a Nobel prize laureate, led the team in Chicago that developed the first nuclear reactor. He is considered the "architect of the nuclear age " [] and the "architect of the atomic bomb ". Other prominent physicists include: Amedeo Avogadro most noted for his contributions to molecular theory , in particular the Avogadro's law and the Avogadro constant , Evangelista Torricelli inventor of barometer , Alessandro Volta inventor of electric battery , Guglielmo Marconi inventor of radio , Galileo Ferraris and Antonio Pacinotti , pioneers of the induction motor, Alessandro Cruto , pioneer of light bulb and Innocenzo Manzetti , eclectic pioneer of auto and robotics, Ettore Majorana who discovered the Majorana fermions , Carlo Rubbia Nobel Prize in Physics for work leading to the discovery of the W and Z particles at CERN.

Antonio Meucci is known for developing a voice-communication device which is often credited as the first telephone. In chemistry, Giulio Natta received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in for his work on high polymers. Giuseppe Occhialini received the Wolf Prize in Physics for the discovery of the pion or pi- meson decay in Ennio de Giorgi , a Wolf Prize in Mathematics recipient in , solved Bernstein's problem about minimal surfaces and the 19th Hilbert problem on the regularity of solutions of Elliptic partial differential equations.

Trieste has the highest percentage of researchers in Europe in relation to the population. Italy is the fifth most visited country in international tourism , with a total of People mainly visit Italy for its rich culture , cuisine , history , fashion , architecture and art.

Rome is the 3rd most visited city in Europe and the 12th in the world, with 9. At the beginning of , Italy had 60,, inhabitants. However, the distribution of the population is widely uneven. The most densely populated areas are the Po Valley that accounts for almost a half of the national population and the metropolitan areas of Rome and Naples, while vast regions such as the Alps and Apennines highlands, the plateaus of Basilicata and the island of Sardinia, as well as much of Sicily, are sparsely populated.

The population of Italy almost doubled during the 20th century, but the pattern of growth was extremely uneven because of large-scale internal migration from the rural South to the industrial cities of the North, a phenomenon which happened as a consequence of the Italian economic miracle of the —s. High fertility and birth rates persisted until the s, after which they started to decline.

The population rapidly aged ; by , one in five Italians was over 65 years old, and the country currently has the fifth oldest population in the world, with a median age of From the late 19th century until the s Italy was a country of mass emigration. Between and , the peak years of Italian diaspora , approximately , Italians emigrated each year.

In , Italy had about 5. The figures include more than half a million children born in Italy to foreign nationals second generation immigrants but exclude foreign nationals who have subsequently acquired Italian citizenship; [] in , about , people became Italian citizens. Starting from the early s, until then a linguistically and culturally homogeneous society, Italy begun to attract substantial flows of foreign immigrants.

Another source of immigration is neighbouring North Africa in particular, Morocco , Egypt and Tunisia , with soaring arrivals as a consequence of the Arab Spring. Furthermore, in recent years, growing migration fluxes from Asia-Pacific notably China [] and the Philippines and Latin America have been recorded. The number of unregistered Romanians is difficult to estimate, but the Balkan Investigative Reporting Network suggested in that there might have been half a million or more.

The distribution of foreign population is geographically varied in Italy: in , Italy's official language is Italian , as stated by the framework law no. Around the world there are an estimated 64 million native Italian speakers [] [] [] and another 21 million who use it as a second language. Standardisation was further expanded in the s and s due to economic growth and the rise of mass media and television the state broadcaster RAI helped set a standard Italian.

Because of recent immigration, Italy has sizeable populations whose native language is not Italian, nor a regional language. According to the Italian National Institute of Statistics , Romanian is the most common mother tongue among foreign residents in Italy: almost , people speak Romanian as their first language Other prevalent mother tongues are Arabic spoken by over , people; In , the proportion of Italians who identified themselves as Roman Catholic Christians was The Holy See , the episcopal jurisdiction of Rome , contains the central government of the Catholic Church.

El poder judicial es independiente del ejecutivo y el legislativo. La cabeza del gobierno fue Giuseppe Conte. Por ejemplo, Ferrovie dello Stato Italiane es la sociedad principal, Trenitalia es la sociedad que se encarga del transporte de cargas y de pasajeros, la Rete Ferroviaria Italiana es la sociedad encargada de la infraestructura ferroviaria, y las Frecciarossa y Frecciargento son las sociedades que proporcionan los servicios de alta velocidad , aunque existen otras.

Italia tiene 66 habitantes Istat En Italia existen una amplia variedad de universidades y academias. En ciclismo posee una de las tres grandes Vueltas a nivel mundial, el Giro de Italia. De Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre. Emblema nacional. El presidente del Consejo de Ministros Mario Draghi. Friuli Venecia Julia. Valle de Aosta. Trentino Alto Adigio. Mar Tirreno.

Mar de Liguria. Consultado el 31 de diciembre de Fondo Monetario Internacional. Consultado el 14 de febrero de Consultado el 11 de diciembre de Encyclopedia of European Peoples. Infobase Publishing. ISBN Consultado el 23 February Comparative Civilizations Review.

Moscati , Italia Punica , Rusconi, Milano, Graham, "The colonial expansion of Greece", in John Boardman et al. III, part 3, p. A history of Rome. OCLC Rome and the Unification of Italy. London: Croom Helm. Davis: Italy in the Central Middle Ages ». Italian unification, — Oxford: Heinemann. Archivado desde el original el 24 September Consultado el 30 September Consultado el 17 de noviembre de Consultado el 15 de septiembre de Consultado el 28 de noviembre de Cambridge University Press.

Archivado desde el original el 1 de enero de Consultado el 20 de octubre de Encyclopaedia Britannica ». Berlingieri: Origine del nome Italia ». En Jerome Lectures, Seventeenth Series, p. Christopher J. Lex Roscia del 49 a. L'Italia e i popoli italici ».

Consultado el 25 de octubre de Marino Spain in Italy: Politics, Society, and Religion En Timothy E. Gregory, ed. Modern Italy; A Political History. The University of Michigan Press. Greenwood Publishing Group. La Salute pubblica in Italia durante e dopo la Guerra. Yale University Press. General Roatta's war against the partisans in Yugoslavia: Consultado el 21 de diciembre de Liberal and fascist Italy, Oxford University Press. Archivado desde el original el 20 de mayo de Archivado desde el original el 19 de agosto de Consultado el 22 de octubre de Consultado el 21 de enero de Consultado el 13 de noviembre de

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